The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the south-eastern part of Central Asia; its area is 143.1 thousand sq. km.
The geological structure and development of the Republic of Tajikistan territory, including its deep structure as well as minerals and regularities in their location were studied in a number of generalizing works. The complexity of Tajikistan geological structure and diversity of its minerals are conditioned by its location at the junction of two largest geosynclinal folded mobile belts – Urals and Mongolian and Mediterranean- covering, accordingly, Caledonian-Hercynian North-and Mid-Tien-Shan and Hercynian-Cimmerian North- and South-Pamir geosynclinal folded belts. The border between them passes across Ilyak-Vakhsh and North-Pamir ruptured zones, which, correspondingly, enframe Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits and structures of Trans-Alay, Peter I Range, Alay Valley and Tajik intermountain virgation (basin). Hercynides of Kuraminskaya zone and Fergana epi-Hercynian Mesozoic-Cenozoic Depression are located between caledonides of the Northern Tien Shan and Hercynides of the Southern Tien Shan. The basic features of the structure and ore-bearing of the Tien Shan folded area, as well as the Northern Pamir were formed by the end of Hyrcynian phase of diastrophism, and the Southern Pamir – at the end of Cimmerian phase. Within the borders of the above folded areas there are five regions differed by the specific features of their geological development and coinciding with the major geological and economic regions of the republic – Northern (Kuraminskaya zone) North-Eastern (Fergana Depression), Central (Gissaro-Alay), South-Western (Tajik Depression) and South-Eastern Tajikistan (Pamir).
Several hundreds of mineral deposits within the subsoil of Tajikistan have been identified, explored and partially prepared for industrial development, such as deposits of lead and zinc, copper and bismuth, antimony and mercury, precious metals, molybdenum and tungsten, iron, tin, boron raw material, strontium, fluorspar, mineral salts, ornamental, semi-precious and precious stones, building stone and many other types of minerals for construction industry; coal, anthracite, graphite, oil and gas, ozokerite, underground fresh, thermal and mineral waters, phosphorites and a number of other minerals – 50 types of mineral resources in total.
Basic useful minerals in the composition of ores are gold, silver, copper; associated minerals – bismuth, selenium, tellurium. Harmful impurity – arsenic.
Basic minerals – gold-containing arsenopyrite and pyrite; associated – silver and sulphur; harmful – arsenic, antimony and carbon black.
The Republic of Tajikistan holds the leading position in the Central Asian region for the reserves of lead and zinc ores.
Tajikistan ranks third (after China and Thailand) in Asia and first among the CIS countries for the proven reserves of antimony. The mineral reserves of antimony in the republic can be significantly expanded through the expansion of geological exploration works on the deposits of other ore areas where the promising sites were identified.